Types of Tablets

Type of Tablets

Different Types of Tablets

Types of Tablets are often classified depending on their intended usage and manufacturing process (compressed vs. moulded).

  1. Conventional Compressed Tablets
    • Conventional compressed tablets are the most common type of tablet used in clinical practice today. They are produced employing powders or granules comprising both active and inactive ingredients during a single compression cycle.
    • Following oral administration, the tablet’s dissolution and disintegration in the GI tract aid in the drug’s absorption through the gastric mucosa.
    • Examples: Paracetamol tablet, Metformin tablet
  2. Molded Tablets
    • The production of moulded tablets does not involve compression. They are made by moulding, are extremely flimsy, and crumble easily.
    • Triturates are one type of moulded tablet. Triturates tablets are delivered sublingually, which means they are placed on the tongue and then swallowed with a tiny amount of water.
    • The most popular diluents used for tablet triturates are lactose and sucrose.
    • Examples: Nitroglycerin tablet triturates
  3. Buccal Tablets
    • Buccal tablets are intended to dissolve gradually between the cheek and the gingiva in the mouth.
    • Buccal Tablets are manufactured so that the release of drug occurs gradually in the mouth without disintegration.
    • The Active drug molecules is absorbed into the blood circulation directly by means of oral mucosa. Direct absorption by means of oral by pass the first-pass metabolism.
    • Example: Fentanyl buccal tablet, Hydrocortisone buccal tablets
  4. Sublingual Tablets
    1. Sublingual tablets are placed under the tongue and dissolve rapidly. This mode of administration also avoids first-pass metabolism.
    2. Example: Glyceryl trinitrate sublingual tablet, Buprenorphine 0.4mg Sublingual Tablets
  5. Chewable Tablets
    • Chewable tablets: Before swallowing, chewable tablets are chewed in the mouth.
    • Chewable Tablets are not meant to be taken whole. These tablets are made with the elderly, kids, and individuals with swallowing issues in mind.
    • Due to its cooling effect when dissolving in the tongue, mannitol is frequently utilised as an excipient in chewing tablets.
    • Examples: Montelukast (5mg) chewable tablet, Singulair Paediatric 5 mg Chewable Tablets
  6. Effervescent Tablets
    • Effervescent tablets are produced from compression of effervescence granules that contain an organic acid(citric) and sodium bicarbonate.
    • When such tablets are placed in water, the chemical reaction of acid with the base produces carbon dioxide in the form of gas bubbles. Quick disintegration of these tablets helps in quick dissolution and absorption.
    • Example: Alka-Seltzert tablet , Fluimucil 600mg Effervescent Tablet
    • Benefits of Effervescent Tablets:
    • One of the most significant benefits is that effervescent formulation are completely bioavailable (about 100%), as opposed to synthetic tablets, which, depending on a number of parameters, are said to be only 50% to 70% bioavailable.
    • Once consumed, conventional tablets may occasionally only partially dissolve in the stomach, which can occasionally cause irritation or stomach discomfort. Effervescent pills, on the other hand, dissolve entirely and uniformly, preventing any localised concentrations of the components.
    • Effervescent tablets are designed to enhance liquid consumption, which improves patients’ hydration in addition to offering nutritional benefits.
    • Better Choice for the patients those has difficulty in Tablet swallowing.
    • Effervescent tablets are simple to take anywhere and at any time of the day. Dropping them into a glass of water is all that is necessary; the tablet will handle the rest.
  7. Lozenges and Troches
    • In order to have a localized effect in the mouth or throat, lozenges and troches are meant to be sucked and held in the mouth. These dose forms are most frequently found in cold treatments for cough and sore throat. Fusion, compression, or a candy-molding process are used to create lozenges.
    • Troches are created using a compression technique. These dose forms slowly dissolve or degrade over time rather than disintegrate in the mouth.
    • Examples: Clotrimazole troches (Mycelex), Chloraseptic lozenges, Nicorettes lozenges Nicotine Lozenges
  8. Multiple Compressed Tablets
    • Multiple compressed tablets can be used to separate incompatible chemicals or create products with sustained release, or they might be created just for aesthetic purposes.
    • Layered tablets and compression-coated tablets are the two types of multiple compressed tablets.
    • Examples include ascorbic acid mixed with acetaminophen and phenylephrine HCL.
  9. Sugar-Coated Tablets
    • To create attractive, glossy, and simple-to-swallow tablets for oral usage, conventional compressed tablets are successively coated with sugar solution with or without a colour.
    • Example: A sugar-coated perphenazine
  10. Enteric-Coated Tablets
    • Enteric-coated tablets are typically compressed tablets coated with a polymer that quickly dissolves in the alkaline pH of the small intestine but not in the stomach’s acidic environment.
    • Drugs can be shielded from the effects of stomach acidity with such a covering.
    • Additionally, they guard against certain medications’ irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose succinate, and methacrylic acid co-polymers are polymers with enteric coating potential (Eudragit).
    • Examples:
      • Enteric-coated aspirin tablet,
      • Naproxen enteric-coated tablet
      • Protonix (pantoprazole)
      • Aciphex (rabeprazole)
      • Prilosec (omeprazole)
      • Nexium (esomeprazole)
  11. Film-Coated Tablets
    • Compressed tablets that have been coated with a coloured polymeric film that encases the tablet core like a thin skin are known as “film-coated tablets.”
    • The film coating may be formed fast and is quicker to form than sugar coating.
    • Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, Eudragits E100, and other polymers are utilized in film coatings.
    • Example: Glyburide/metformin (5 mg/500 mg) film-coated tablets
  12. Sustained-Release Tablets
    • Sustained-release tablets are intended to provide a dose of a medication that is initially therapeutically beneficial before sustaining this level over an extended period of time. Design strategies are used to achieve this.
    • Sustained-release pills have the benefits of longer-lasting therapeutic effect maintenance, decreased frequency of administration, and improved patient compliance.
    • Example: Bupropion hydrochloride SR tablet
  13. Vaginal Tablets
    • Vaginal tablets are typically compressed ovoid- or pear-shaped tablets that are put into the vagina with the use of a plastic inserter. This dosage type is typically used to give steroids, antibacterial medications, and antifungal medications.
    • Tablets intended for vaginal use are diluted with lactose and sodium bicarbonate. The medication is slowly released after insertion thanks to slow breakdown.
    • To ensure effective retention inside the vagina, it is important to prevent these pills from disintegrating. This dose form enables the delivery of medications both locally and systemically.
    • Examples: Prostin E2 Vaginal Tablets, Candinil, Vagifems (estradiol vaginal tablets), nystatin vaginal tablets, USP
  14. Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODTs)
    • When placed on the tongue, oral disintegrating tablets (ODT), which are a solid dosage form containing pharmaceuticals medication, quickly dissolve under the tongue, typically in a matter of seconds.
    • They are made by dry granulation and compression, have a hardness of at least 40 N, a disintegration time of at most 30 seconds, a friability of at most 0.1 percent, and have a great taste when consumed. They can also dissolve in a tiny amount of water.
    • Example: Zofran ODT (Ondansetron ODT); Risperidone, Olanzapine, Duragesic,  Imodium Instant melts (Loperamide HCI ODT)

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