Male Infertility

What are the symptoms of male infertility?

  • The major sign or symptom of male infertility is not able to conceive a child. There could be no alternative clear signs or symptoms.
  • In certain cases, however, the signs and symptoms are caused by an underlying issue, such as a genetic disorder, hormone imbalance, dilated veins around the testicle, or a condition that inhibits sperm from flowing through. The following are some signs and symptoms:
  • Problems with sexual function include problems with ejaculation or less amount of fluid ejaculated, sexual drive is lessened, or erectile dysfunction.
  • Pain, swelling, or a lump in the testicular area.
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Inability to smell
  • Abnormal male breast growth (Known as “Gynecomastia”)
  • Hair loss on the face or body, as well as other symptoms of chromosomal or hormonal abnormalities
  • Normal sperm count not achieved

What is the normal sperm count?

Sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate or less than 15 million sperm per milliliter of sperm

Male fertility requirements at a basic level include:

A. Healthy Sperm:

  • This begins throughout puberty with the development and expansion of the male reproductive organs. To trigger and maintain sperm production, at least one of your testicles must be working properly, and your body must create testosterone and other molecules.
  • (Puberty is the stage in a human’s body when he or she becomes sexually mature)

B. The sperm must be transported into the semen.

  • When sperm are created in the testicles, they are transported through delicate tubes until they combine with semen and are ejected from the penis.

C. A sufficient amount of sperm must be present in the sperm.

  • Your odds of one of your sperm fertilising your partner’s egg are poor if your sperm count (the number of sperm in your sperm) is low.
  • A sperm count of less than 15 million per millilitre of sperm or less than 39 million per ejaculate is considered poor.

D. Sperm must be able to migrate and be functional.

  • Your sperm may not be able to reach or penetrate your partner’s egg if their movement (motility) or function is faulty.

What are the causes of male infertility?

A. Male fertility requirements at a basic level are not being met.

B. Medical causes

  • Male fertility difficulties can be caused by many of medical conditions & therapies, including:
  • Varicocele:
    • A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins that carry deoxygenated blood away from the testicle. Varicocele (VAR-ih-koe-seel) is a condition in which the veins in the loose bag of skin that holds the testicles grow (scrotum).
    • The testicles’ oxygen-depleted blood is transported by these veins. Varicoceles reason for sperm quantity and quality to be lowered.
  • Infection
    • This leads to decreased sperm production or sperm health or may cause scarring that blocks the passage of sperm.
    • Inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) or testicles is caused by some sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhoea or HIV (orchitis).
    • Even though some illnesses might cause lasting testicular damage, sperm can typically be retrieved.
  • Ejaculation issues
    • During the sexual excitement, semen enters the bladder instead of exiting out the tip of the penis, resulting in retrograde ejaculation.
    • Retrograde ejaculation can occur due to Diabetes, spinal injuries, drugs, and bladder, prostate, or urethra surgery.
  • Antibodies that attack sperm 
  • Tumours
    • Cancers and non-malignant tumors may affect the male reproductive organs directly. 
    • In some cases, surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy used to treat cancer can impact male fertility.
  • Undescended testicles
    • One or both testicles fail to migrate from the abdomen into the sac that normally holds the testicles in some males during foetal development.
    • Men who have had this illness have a reduced chance of having children.
  • Hormone imbalances
    • Problems with the testicles or other hormonal systems such as the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands can all contribute to infertility.
    • A multitude of reasons can contribute to low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal disorders.
  • Defects of tubules that transport sperm. 
    • Inadvertent injury from surgery, prior infections, trauma or abnormal development, such as cystic fibrosis or similar inherited conditions may create blocked tubes.
  • Chromosome Defects (Genetic Disorder)
    • Genetic disorders such as Klinefelter’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and Kallmann’s syndrome.(Klinefelter’s syndrome: A male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (where typically it will be one X and one Y)
    • That causes abnormal growth of the male reproductive organs.
  • Problems with sexual intercourse
  • Celiac Disease 
    • Celiac disease is digestive disorder that is associated with gluten protein. The disorder may introduce to male infertility
  • Certain medications. 
  1. Testosterone replacement therapy,
  2. Long-term anabolic steroid use,
  3. Cancer medications (chemotherapy),
  4. Some ulcer drugs,
  5. Some arthritis drugs and
  6. Certain other medications can damage sperm production and reduction male fertility.
  • Prior surgeries
  1. Vasectomy,
  2. Scrotal or testicular surgeries,
  3. Prostate surgeries, and
  4. Large abdominal surgeries performed for testicular and
  5. Rectal cancers, among others.

C. Environmental causes

Overexposure to some environmental elements, like a heat, pollutants, and chemicals, can issue for sperm production and function to be reduced. Here are some instances of specific causes:

  • Industrial chemicals:
  1. Certain chemicals,
  2. Pesticides,
  3. Herbicides,
  4. Organic solvents and
  5. Painting materials may leads to low sperm counts.
  • Heavy metal exposure
  • Radiation or X-rays
  • Overheating the testicles
    • The production and function of sperm may be harmed by high temperatures.
  • Sitting for lengthy amounts of time, wearing tight clothing, or working on a laptop computer for long lengths of time can all raise scrotal temperature and limit sperm production. However, the study isn’t definitive.

D. Health, lifestyle and other causes

  • Drug use
    • Anabolic steroids, which are used to improve muscle strength and growth, might cause testicles to shrink and sperm production to decrease.
    • Cocaine or marijuana use might decrease the quantity and quality of healthy sperm for a short period of time.
  • Alcohol use
    • Alcohol drinking lowers testosterone levels, roots erectile dysfunction, and decreases sperm production. Extreme drinking can bring liver damage, which can lead to fertility issues.
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Weight. 
    • Overweight may indirectly effect on hormonal imbalance and other medical condition which leads to male infertility.

How the male infertility Diagnosis occur?


How is male infertility diagnosed?

Diagnosing male infertility Typically, issues entail:

  1. General physical check-up and medical history
  2. Sperm count (semen analysis)
    • Semen is look for any abnormalities in the shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm. The lab shall also check semen for signs of problems such as infections. Sperm Count was also calculated.
  3. Scrotal ultrasound
    • It will be useful for the detection of varicocele or other problems in the testicles and supporting structures.
  4. Transrectal ultrasound
    • Useful for checking the blockages of the tubes that carry semen.
  5. Hormone testing
    A blood test evaluate the level of testosterone and other hormones.
  6. Post-ejaculation urinalysis
    • Sperm in your urination indicates that your sperm are moving backwards into your bladder during ejaculation instead of out your penis (Called : Retrograde ejaculation).
  7. Genetic tests
  8. Testicular biopsy
  9. Specialized sperm function tests. 
    • A variety of tests can be used to determine how long your sperm survive after ejaculation, how well they penetrate an egg, and whether or not they have any issues attaching to the egg. These tests aren’t commonly utilized, and they usually don’t affect therapy recommendations

What are the treatments for male infertility?

Male infertility may include one or more factors. It will be treated in many ways which include:

1. Surgery

  • Surgery for varicocele can be corrected or an obstruction can be repaired.

2. Treating infections. 

  • Antibiotic treatment may cure an infection of the reproductive tract, but it doesn’t assure the restoration of fertility.

3. Treatments for sexual intercourse problems

  • Medication or counseling with doctors will improve fertility in situations such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

4. Hormone treatments and medications

5. Assisted reproductive technology (ART)

  • Depending on your personal condition and needs, ART treatments may include collecting sperm by natural ejaculation, surgical extraction, or from donor persons.
  • The sperm are then either injected into the female vaginal tract, used in in vitro fertilisation, or injected intracytoplasmically.

6. Alternative medicine

  • Many supplements have been studied for their potential to improve sperm count or quality, including:
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Folic acid and zinc combination
  • L-carnitine
  • Selenium
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E

Note: Ask your doctor before taking any medicine.

7. In-vitro fertilization (IVF)

8. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

When treatment doesn’t work?

Male fertility difficulties can be remedied in certain circumstances, but it is impossible for a man to father a child in others. Your doctor may advise you and your partner to consider utilising donor sperm or adopting a child.

What are the lifestyle and home remedies for male infertility?

You can take a few steps at home to improve your chances of becoming pregnant:

1. Increase the number of times you have sex

  • Beginning at least five days before ovulation, having sexual intercourse every day or every other day enhances your chances of getting your spouse pregnant.

2. When fertilization is possible, have intercourse.

3. Avoid the use of lubricants

  • Products like Astroglide or K-Y jelly, saliva, lotions, and might weaken sperm movement and function.

4. Live a healthy lifestyle

5. Stay away from things that are bad for your general health.

  • Stop or reduce intake of alcohol, stop smoking, and don’t use illegal drugs.

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