Alzheimer’s Disease

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Alzheimer's Disease

What is Alzheimer’s Disease?

  • Alzheimer’s disease is associated with a brain disorder that gradually destroys memory and thinking procedures and, the ability to do the simplest tasks. This neurologic disease causes the brain to shrink (atrophy) and brain cells to die.
  • In many people with the disorder, late-onset type symptoms first appear in their mid-60s.
  • Alzheimer’s may occur between a person’s 30s and mid-60s and is very infrequent.
  • Alzheimer’s disease is the maximum common cause of dementia in older adults.
  • Dementia: It is the loss of mental functioning i.e thinking, remembering, and reasoning to such an extent that it will affect daily life and events.

How does Alzheimer’s come into World?

  • The disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer (Alois Alzheimer – German psychiatrist and neuropathologist).
  • In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed variations in the brain tissue of a woman who died along with unusual mental illness.
  • Her symptoms included memory loss, language difficulties, and unpredictable behaviors. After death, he observed her brain and found many abnormal clumps (now called amyloid plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (now called neurofibrillary, or tau, tangles).
  • These plaques and tangles in the brain are considered some of the main symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. 

Risk factors :

  • Yet completely understand what causes Alzheimer’s disease. There is no single reason but rather a several factors that can affect each person differently.
  1. Age
  2. Family history and genetics: Researchers may think that genetics might play a part in developing Alzheimer’s disease. Still, genes do not equal.
  3. Down syndrome: It could lead to the development of  Alzheimer’s disease
  4. Sex: It appears to be a small difference in risk between men and women, but, there are more women with the disease because they statistically live longer than men.
  5. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): It is a condition of decreasing memory or other thinking ability that is higher than normal for a person’s age, but the decline doesn’t stop a person from operational in social or work atmospheres.
  6. Trauma or particular Head trauma have a greater risk of Alzheimer’s disease
  7. Air Pollution: Air pollution particulates may speed degeneration of the nervous system
  • Habit of Drinking Alcohol in Large Quantity: Drinking large amounts of alcohol leads to brain changes .
  • Poor sleep patterns: Sleeping difficulty, falling asleep, or staying asleep, are associated with an increased risk of disease
  • Lifestyle and heart-related health: Risk factors associated with heart disease may also increase the risk of disease. These include:
    • Lack of exercise
    • Obesity
    • Smoking or exposure to second-hand (Passive) smoking
    • High blood pressure
    • High cholesterol
    • Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease:

  • Alzheimer’s disease is not a preventable condition. Several lifestyle risk factors or changes can be modified.
  • It is signifying that changes in diet, exercise, and habits steps to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and parallel it may also lower your risk of developing disease
  • Healthy heart-related lifestyle choices that may decrease the chance of Alzheimer’s include the following:
    • Exercising regularly
    • Have diet of fresh produce, healthy oils, and foods low in saturated fat such as a Mediterranean diet
    • Manage high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol with the help of doctors.
    • Quit smoking if you smoke

Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease :

  • The current scenario is, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. But the positive research is ongoing for it. Several medicines have been approved by the US FDA to treat Alzheimer’s.
  • There is no evidence of how long a person will live with the disease. It is somehow manageable with treatment.

Medication:

  • Galantamine,
  • Rivastigmine and donepezil are cholinesterase inhibitors
  • Medication also depends on alzheimer’s disease symptoms and Stages.

These drugs could help to reduce or control some cognitive and behavioral signs.

Note: This information is only for Education purposes.

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