Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)

Polycystic Ovary Disorder (PCOD)

What is Polycystic Ovary Disorder?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects a woman’s hormone levels. It is a hormonal state that affects approximately 5- 10% of women in their motherhood age or childbearing ages (12 to 45-years).

Probably Reason:

  • Women with PCOS may have infrequent or extended menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries might develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.
  • Imbalance of the two female hormones estrogen and progesterone with estrogen taking the upper hand leads to menstrual irregularities, infertility, increased risk of endometrial (inner lining of the uterus), & Breast cancer
  • Insulin resistance will induce obesity 
  • Excess of testosterone may cause acne and extra hair growth

What are the common symptoms Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

Some women start sighted symptoms around the time of their first period. Others only notice they have PCOS after they have gained a lot of weight or not getting pregnant.

The most common symptoms are:

  1. Irregular periods (Called Oligomenorrhea). 
  2. Skipped or absent of menstruation (Called Amenorrhea)
  3. Heavy bleeding (called Menorrhagia). 
  4. Hair growth: More than 70 percent of women with this condition extra grow hair on their face and body which include on their back, belly, and chest. Excess hair growth is called “hirsutism”.
  5. Acne
  6. Weight gain
  7. Male pattern baldness
  8. Darkening of the skin: Dark patches of skin could be formed in body creases like those on the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
  • Headaches. 

What are the Complications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

Complications of PCOS can include:

  1. Infertility
  2. Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
  3. Miscarriage or premature birth
  4. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver
  5. Metabolic syndrome
  6. Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
  7. Sleep apnea
  8. Depression, anxiety and eating disorders
  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding
  10. Cancer occurring on uterine lining (Called endometrial cancer)
  11. Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder.

How PCOS affect your health and body?

  1. Infertility: Women who don’t ovulate regularly don’t release as many eggs to be fertilized. PCOS is one causes of infertility in women.
  2. Metabolic syndrome: Risk for high blood sugar, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and stroke high blood sugar, high blood pressure, low HDL “good” cholesterol, high LDL “bad” cholesterol.
  3. Sleep apnea: It causes repeated pauses in breathing during the night, which interrupt sleep
  4. Endometrial cancer: Due to thickened uterine lining can increase your risk for endometrial cancer.
  5. Depression and anxiety.
  6. Miscarriage (spontaneous loss of a pregnancy)
  7. NASH (Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis): It build-up up fat in the liver. When this build-up causes inflammation and damage to the liver, it is known as NASH, which causes scarring of the liver.

What are the Common medical treatments available for PCOS ?

Birth control pills and other medications might regulate the menstrual cycle and treat PCOS symptoms like extra hair growth and acne.

1. Birth control

        Taking progestin every day can:

  • Restore a normal hormone balance
  • Regulate ovulation
  • Relieve symptoms like excess hair growth
  • Protect against endometrial cancer

2. Metformin: Metformin is a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is also used to treat PCOS by improving insulin levels.

3. Clomiphene: Clomiphene (Clomid) is a fertility drug that can help women with PCOS get pregnant.

4. Hair removal medications

5. Surgery

Understanding the difference between PCOD & PCOS

 PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease)PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
Causative Factors  All women body have two ovaries that release an egg alternately on monthly.

The ovaries produce androgens or male hormones in minute quantities.

PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) is a condition where the ovaries release a lot of immatures or partially-mature eggs that might be turn into cysts.

PCOD is a condition occurred by the imbalance of hormones. It is believed that hormonal imbalances and genetics play an essential role in both conditions. 
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a disorder of the endocrine system of women body.

In women with PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome), the ovaries produce higher levels of androgen than usual, which interference with development and release of the eggs.

Some of the eggs develop into cysts, which are the little sacs filled with liquid
Occurrence  PCOD is more common in comparison in women.

Almost one-third of women around the world suffer from Polycystic Ovarian Disease so, called PCOD.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome has a lower number of patients in world.
Effect on Pregnancy  Polycystic Ovarian Disease does not lead to infertility in all women and shouldn’t be considered an preventing women towards pregnancy.Women with PCOS, conception for child can be a challenge due to the hormonal imbalance.

To conceive a child, one should have balanced hormonal cycles that can create an conditions for the ovum to release and infuse with the sperm post-intercourse. 
Difference between PCOD & PCOS

More: https://pharmasciences.in/uncategorized/analytical-development-quality-control/






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