Types of Titration Techniques and Equations

Exploring Various Types of Titration Techniques and Equations

Introduction of Types of Titration Techniques:

  • Types of Titration Techniques: Titration is a fundamental analytical chemistry technique used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution. It involves the controlled addition of a reagent (known as the titrant) of known concentration to a solution containing the analyte until a reaction reaches its endpoint.
  • Various types of titration methods are employed in analytical laboratories for different types of analytes and reactions.
  • In this comprehensive guide, will explore several common types of titration techniques, their principles, and provide relevant equations to better understand each method.
  • List of Types of Titration Methods:
    1. Acid-Base Titration
    2. Redox Titration
    3. Complexometric Titration
    4. Precipitation Titration
  • Others,
    • Non-Aqueous Titration
    • Back Titration
    • Coulometric Titration
    • Karl Fischer Titration
    • Potentiometric Titration
    • Conductometric Titration
    • Gas Evolution Titration
Types of Titration Techniques and Equations


1. Acid-Base Titration:

1.1 Principle:

  • Acid-base titration is one of the most widely used titration methods. It involves the neutralization of an acid analyte by a base titrant (or vice versa) with the endpoint reached when the solution becomes neutral (pH 7).
  • Read : pH value

1.2 Equation:

   For the neutralization of a strong acid (HA) with a strong base (OH^-):

   HA + OH^- → H2O + A^-

2. Redox Titration (Oxidation-Reduction Titration):

2.1 Principle:

  • Redox titration involves the transfer of electrons between the analyte and the titrant. The endpoint is reached when the number of electrons transferred in the reaction is equivalent to the moles of analyte.

2.2 Equation:

   For the titration of Fe2+ with Ce4+ in an acidic solution:

   5Fe2+ + Ce4+ + 8H+ → 5Fe3+ + Ce3+ + 4H2O

3. Complexometric Titration:

3.1 Principle:

  • Complexometric titration involves the formation of a stable complex between the analyte and a titrant. The endpoint is reached when all available analyte has formed complexes.

3.2 Equation:

   For the titration of calcium ions (Ca2+) with ethylen ediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA):

   Ca2+ + EDTA → [Ca(EDTA)]2-

4. Precipitation Titration:

4.1 Principle:

  • Precipitation titration is used for the determination of analytes that form precipitates with specific reagents. The endpoint is reached when all analyte has precipitated.

4.2 Equation:

   For the titration of chloride ions (Cl-) with silver nitrate (AgNO3):

   Ag+ + Cl^- → AgCl↓

5. Non-Aqueous Titration:

5.1 Principle:

  • Non-aqueous titration is performed in non-aqueous solvents, typically for analytes that are not soluble in water. Common solvents include acetic acid and alcohol.

5.2 Equation:

   For the titration of acetic acid (CH3COOH) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in acetic acid solvent:

   CH3COOH + OH^- → CH3COO^- + H2O

6. Back Titration:

6.1 Principle:

  • Back titration is used when the reaction between the analyte and the titrant is slow or incomplete. It involves adding an excess of a second reagent to react with the excess titrant, and then determining the remaining excess.

6.2 Equation:

   For the determination of aspirin content using excess NaOH followed by titration with HCl:

   C9H8O4 + NaOH → NaC9H7O4 + H2O

   NaC9H7O4 + HCl → C9H8O4 + NaCl

7. Coulometric Titration:

7.1 Principle:

  • Coulometric titration relies on the measurement of the quantity of electricity (coulombs) required to complete a chemical reaction. It is particularly useful for precise measurements.

7.2 Equation:

   In a coulometric titration of iodine (I2) with thiosulfate (S2O32-):

   2S2O32- + I2 → 2I^- + S4O62-

8. Karl Fischer Titration:

8.1 Principle:

  • Karl Fischer titration is used for the determination of water content in various substances. It involves the reaction of water with iodine and sulfur dioxide in a specialized titration cell.

8.2 Equation:

   For the reaction of water with iodine and sulfur dioxide:

   SO2 + I2 + 2H2O → H2SO4 + 2HI

9. Potentiometric Titration:

9.1 Principle:

  • Potentiometric titration involves the measurement of the potential difference (voltage) between two electrodes as a function of the amount of titrant added.
  • The endpoint is determined by a sudden change in voltage.

9.2 Equation:

  •  The specific equation depends on the type of potentiometric titration, such as acid-base, redox, or complexometric.

10. Conductometric Titration:

10.1 Principle:

  • Conductometric titration measures the change in electrical conductivity of a solution as the titrant is added. The endpoint is detected by a sudden change in conductivity.

10.2 Equation:

    The equation varies depending on the specific conductometric titration being performed.

11. Gas Evolution Titration:

11.1 Principle:

  •  Gas evolution titration involves the determination of analytes that produce gas as a product of the reaction. The volume of gas evolved is proportional to the amount of analyte.

11.2 Equation:

    For the titration of carbonate ions (CO32-) with hydrochloric acid (HCl):

    HCl + CO32- → CO2↑ + H2O


  • Titration techniques are indispensable tools in analytical chemistry for quantifying the concentration of various substances.
  • Each type of titration relies on specific principles and equations tailored to the nature of the analyte and titrant.
  • Understanding these methods and equations is crucial for accurate and precise analytical determinations across a wide range of applications.
  • Whether you are performing acid-base titrations, redox titrations, or any other type of titration, a solid grasp of the principles and equations involved is essential for successful analysis.

Read More:

You cannot copy content of this page