Titration Molarity or Normality

About Titration Molarity or Normality :

What is a Titration?

Titration: It is a process of chemical analysis in which the qty. of some constituent of a sample is determined by adding to the measured sample an accurately known quantity of another substance with which the desired constituent reacts in a definite, known proportion. 

It’s also known as “volumetric analysis” and “titrimetry.”

Type of Titration :

  1. Acid-base titration
  2. Redox titration
  3. Gas phase titration
  4. Complexometric titration
  5. Zeta potential titration
  6. Assay
  7. Back titration
Titration Molarity or Normality

How to measure the endpoint of a titration?

1. Indicator:

In response to a chemical change, a substance changes color. The colour of an acid–base indicator (such as phenolphthalein) changes with the pH variation. At the start of the titration, a 1-2 drop of indicator solution is introduced in the solution; the endpoint is reached when the colour changes.

Type of Indicators:

IndicatorAcidic side ColorRange of color change
Basic side Color
Methyl violetYellow0.0–1.6Violet
Bromophenol blueYellow3.0–4.6Blue
Methyl orangeRed3.1–4.4Yellow
Methyl redRed4.4–6.3Yellow
Bromothymol blueYellow6.0–7.6Blue
Alizarin yellowYellow10.1–12.0Red

2. pH meter

3. Conductivity

4. Color change

5. Precipitation

6. Isothermal titration calorimeter

7. Thermometric titrimetry

8. Spectroscopy


What are normality and molarity?

  • Normality (N) is defined as the number of a gram (g) or mole equivalents of solute present in 1.0 litre of a solution.
  • Normality = Number of gram equivalents × [volume of solution in litres]-1

  • Molar Concentration or Molarity (M) is defined as the number of moles of solute present in a definite amount of liters of the solution, that is, moles per liters of a solution.
  • Molarity (M) = No. of moles of solute × [volume of the solution in litres]-1

Differences Between Normality and Molarity

Equivalent concentration is another name for it.Also known as molar concentration.
It is defined as the number of gram (g) equivalent per 1.0 litre of solution.It is defined as the number of moles (mol.) per 1.0 litre of solution.
It’s used to calculate the gramme equivalent in relation to the solution’s total volume.It is used in measuring the ratio between the number of moles in the total volume of the solution.
Units : N or eq L-1 Unit: M or Moles L-1

Difference between Molarity and Molality:

PointMolarity (M)Molality (m)
Measure ofConcentrationConcentration
DefinitionThe moles of a solute per solution (in liters)The moles of a solute per solvent (in Kilograms)
EquationM = moles solute / liters solutionm = moles solute / kg solvent
Ratio of moles to:Volume (in liters)Mass (in kilograms)

Specific gravity: The specific gravity is the ratio between the density of an object or desired substance, and a reference standard substance.

RD = ρ Substance ÷ ρ Reference

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