Type of Injection Administration 

Type of Injection Administration 

Here are the Type of Injection Administration,

Intramuscular Injection (IM): 

  • Intramuscular injections involve delivering medication into the muscle tissue. 
  • This route allows for rapid absorption and can be used for both aqueous and oil-based medications. 
  • Common sites for IM injections include the deltoid muscle (upper arm), vastus lateralis muscle (thigh), and gluteus maximus muscle (buttocks).
  • Examples of drugs administered via IM injection:
  • Influenza vaccine (Fluzone)
  • Antibiotics such as penicillin G (Bicillin)
  • Analgesics like morphine sulfate (Duramorph)
  • Vaccines like the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR-II)
  • Hormones such as testosterone cypionate (Depo-Testosterone)

Subcutaneous Injection (SC or SQ):

  • Subcutaneous injections involve administering medication into the subcutaneous tissue, which is the layer between the skin and muscle. 
  • This route allows for slower absorption compared to IM injections. 
  • Common sites for SC injections include the abdomen, outer aspect of the upper arm, and thigh.
  • SC injections are commonly used for medications that require slow absorption and for those that form depot or reservoirs for a sustained effect. 
  • Needle length and gauge vary depending on factors such as the patient’s body size and the medication being administered.
  • Examples of drugs administered via SC injection:
    • Insulin (Humalog, Lantus)
    • Heparin (Fragmin)
    • Epinephrine (EpiPen)
    • Anticoagulants like enoxaparin (Lovenox)
    • Growth hormone (Genotropin)

Intradermal Injection (ID): 

  • Intradermal injections involve injecting medication into the dermis, the layer of skin just below the epidermis.
  • This route is typically used for diagnostic tests or small amounts of medication.
  • The most common site for ID injections is the inner forearm.
  • ID injections are commonly used for skin testing, such as for tuberculosis or allergens. 
  • A small-gauge needle, usually 25-27 gauge, is inserted at a shallow angle to create a wheal or a small bubble under the skin.
  • Examples of drugs administered via ID injection:
    • Tuberculosis (TB) skin test (Tubersol)
    • Allergy testing (Various allergens)

Intravenous Injection (IV): 

  • Intravenous injections involve delivering medication directly into a vein. 
  • This route provides immediate drug action as it bypasses absorption barriers.
  • IV injections can be given as bolus injections (rapid administration) or infusion (slow administration over a period of time).
  • Intravenous (IV) Injections method allows for immediate systemic distribution of the medication.
  • IV injections require aseptic technique and the use of infusion devices or syringes with appropriate needles. 
  • The choice of vein and equipment depends on the type of medication, volume, and duration of administration.
  • Examples of drugs administered via IV injection:
    • Antibiotics like vancomycin (Vancocin)
    • Chemotherapy drugs such as doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
    • Electrolyte solutions like normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride)
    • Anesthetics like propofol (Diprivan)
    • Blood products like packed red blood cells
Type of Injection Administration


Intravenous Push (IVP) or Intravenous Bolus: 

  • Intravenous push or bolus injections involve the rapid administration of a medication directly into a vein using a syringe.
  • This method allows for the immediate delivery of a higher concentration of medication.
  • IVP injections are commonly used for medications that require immediate effects, such as analgesics or antiarrhythmics. 
  • They require careful monitoring and the use of a controlled injection technique to avoid adverse effects.
  • Examples of drugs administered via IVP or bolus injection:
    • Pain medication such as fentanyl (Sublimaze)
    • Antiarrhythmics like adenosine (Adenocard)
    • Antipsychotics like haloperidol (Haldol)
    • Benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan)
    • Antiemetics like ondansetron (Zofran)

Intravenous Infusion: 

  • Intravenous infusion involves delivering medication slowly over a period of time using an IV bag, pump, or infusion device.
  • This method allows for continuous and controlled administration of medication.
  • Examples of drugs administered via IV infusion:
    • Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
    • Chemotherapy regimens like cisplatin (Platinol)
    • Antibiotics like ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
    • Intravenous fluids for hydration

Intrathecal Injection: 

  • Intrathecal injections involve injecting medication into the spinal canal or spinal cord, specifically into the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord and the cerebral spinal fluid. 
  • This route is used for drugs that need to reach the central nervous system directly. Intrathecal Injection are often used for administering anesthesia, chemotherapy drugs, or medications for certain neurological conditions.
  • Examples of drugs administered via intrathecal injection:
    • Chemotherapeutic agents like methotrexate (Trexall)
    • Opioids like morphine for pain management
    • Contrast agents for myelography

Intra-articular Injection

  • Intra-articular injections involve injecting medication directly into a joint, such as the knee or shoulder.
  • This route is commonly used for the treatment of joint pain, inflammation, or arthritis.
  • Examples of drugs administered via intra-articular injection:
    • Corticosteroids like triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog)
    • Hyaluronic acid derivatives for joint lubrication
    • Local anesthetics like lidocaine for joint pain relief

Intramuscular Depot Injection

  • Intramuscular depot injections involve administering medications in a form that provides sustained release over an extended period.
  • These formulations typically consist of a drug suspended in an oily base or as a solid implant.
  • Examples of drugs administered via intramuscular depot injection:
    • Contraceptives like medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera)
    • Antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal Consta)
    • Testosterone esters for hormone replacement therapy (Testosterone undecanoate)

Intracardiac Injection: 

  • Intracardiac injections are delivered directly into the heart muscle. 
  • This method is rarely used and is typically performed in emergency situations when other routes of administration are not possible.

Considerations for Injection Administration:

  • Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices should be followed before and after injection administration.
  • The selection of an appropriate needle size and gauge depends on factors such as the patient’s body size, the injection site, and the medication being administered.
  • Injection sites should be chosen carefully, taking into account factors such as the patient’s age, body size, and condition, as well as the medication’s requirements.
  • Proper injection technique, including angle, depth, and rate of injection, should be followed to ensure accurate and safe delivery of the medication.
  • Careful disposal of used needles and sharps is crucial to prevent needlestick injuries and transmission of bloodborne pathogens.


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